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WhoIs Bitbrowze?


Crosdale, Inc. (d/b/a xDALE) are purveyors of intellectual property such as distributed apps a/k/a d-apps, e.g. (ERC721 NFTs and ERC20 STO Tokens and smart contracts). BitbrowZe is an xDALE app that lets users seamlessly mint NFTs and links to a human-readable GUI (graphical user interface) such as a hosted webpage. Tokens represent the underlying assets that you hold for sale or lease. Declared agreements on your web page confirm sale or lease transactions. These agreements are not merely written as text, they are coded as immutable computer programs that are trustless Agreements since they require no third-party witness to be enforceable.

There are 3 categories of such xDALE Agreements :

(Category-1) A Subscription Agreement;

(Category-2) A Deed Agreement;

(Category-3) A Shareholder Agreement.

Furthermore, these assets can be defined only by your web page Administrator. As types, they can be physical products, and may need to be delivered as per the buyer’s shipping information; Or, they can be digital products, such as online documents, images, etc., and can be downloaded.

A Token will be minted after associating it with the underlying asset of your choosing. Your end users (such as your clients) will be required to make full payment on any transaction. Only then will the token be transferred to their linked wallet. The ‘For-Lease’ dApp Basically, this is a subscription d-App. A Lease is treated as an annual subscription purchase broken up into small monthly payables. The owner never relinquishes the title to the underlying asset.

Illustration: As an owner of a building, I can lease a unit in the building for 1 year. The Agreement is for the assessed value of 12 x $3,000 or $36,000. I commit to selling 1 token per month to a specific buyer for a guaranteed crypto equivalent of $3,000 each. That is recited in the Annual subscription Agreement. I can do the same for the annual subscription of anything; For instance, a publication subscription. Website Phone 7185697764 Phone number is 917.748.6815

Industry IT Services and IT consulting

company size 11-50 employees

HeadquartersBeaverton, OR

Founded 2000

Specialties Blockchain consulting, Real Estate, and Fine Art


(1)Primary Headquarters 9450 SW Gemini Dr, PMB 36868, Beaverton,

OR 97008-7105, US

Get Directions 

Get directions to 9450 SW Gemini Dr, PMB 36868, Beaverton, OR 97008-7105, US

Map of 9450 SW Gemini Dr, PMB 36868, Beaverton, OR 97008-7105, US

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Arbitrage Opty AS A FOR-PROFIT OPERATION. Swap Art token vs ERC20 nft

At DALEx you can easily swap your paintings, mint your NFTs, and create unlimited memes.

call 917-748-6815 or message us securely via Threema.Ch or e-mail info@

Art Arbitrage Program

Message to our Speculative Investors.

Affiliate Referral Network: Use your contacts to Build a downline of referrals and earn passive income.

I’m [ Douglas Crosdale ] of Dale Exchange.

I’m an [ artist ] [art patron].

If you appreciate the opportunities of the cryptocurrency industry I invite you to join me in a cooperative initiative to trade NFTs for cryptos.

Let me tell you how this is rewarding.


Fractional Funding Option (in certain jurisdictions only) 4

You collaborate in the crowdfunding of an original work of art and participate in fractionalized ownership just like share ownership of a corporation or shareholder in a co-op building.

#1    Firstly, you get the right to mint 1 your unique copy of the original which is 100% yours in the form of an NFT that can appreciate in market value. You can even transfer this right for consideration.

#2 Secondly, you become prestigiously recognized as a co-patron of the original. Your name is forever associated with the artwork.

#3   Thirdly, as a co-owner you are eligible for inclusion in our Affiliate Referral network to earn passive income.

#4   As a co-owner you’ll get lifetime access to Hypsoverse, our virtual reality platform (a value of $550/yr subscription ) to mint, display, and auction your unique nft.

You can view a PROTOTYPE video of the HYPSOVERSE platform for which you wear a VR headset and replace the Avatar with yourself immersing in the galleries. (The Planned Release, 12.2024).

How to test run the PROTOTYPE (Best viewed on a desktop PC. Avatar instructions: use keyboard arrows for navigation and E’ to enter through the main gallery door.)

Arbitrage Option (in certain jurisdictions only)2

#5   With the arbitrage option, you can use our DALEx exchange to swap your (ERC721) art NFT for XER our (ERC20 ) STO and then for Bitcoin or any Altcoin. XER is 25% backed by gold). In other words, the purchase price of your token is guaranteed by an equivalent amount of gold coin. This means you can never lose more than the per-ounce value of the gold pegged by our Oracle app when you first participated in the original non-profit option. We publicly display the underlying nft gold certificate backing the XER.

We think that over time, the value of the artwork will increase significantly more than the price of gold.

 If XER’s market price exceeds the art NFT, your option allows you to swap one for the other and take possession of the gold certificate nft. This arbitrage position is unique to our XER token.

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Online Phone Bank Systems

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What Is Phone Banking? A Simple Guide To Get You Started


Table of contents

A good political campaign is the single most influential factor in determining which party or candidate wins an election. Political campaigning entails:

1. Reaching out to your voters.

2. Letting them know who you are.

3. Telling them what you stand for.

4. Educating them about why they should vote for you.

In today’s world, there are many methods campaigns use to attract your attention. The traditional way is through broadcast media like radio, TV, or simply newspapers. The more modern way, and the one that is gaining a lot of traction, is through social media, email, and online advertising.

Read Also: Get out the Vote: Research-backed Strategies and Tools to increase Voter Turnout

However, campaigning works most effectively when there is a personal touch associated with it. After all, a voter might be more influenced to support a campaign through a volunteer than a poster outside a store, right?  This is why door-to-door canvassing is so useful for getting heard as well as learning more about your voter. Unfortunately, for larger campaigns or ones that have a time restriction, it just isn’t possible to visit every voter for campaigning. Besides, without a large pool of volunteers, door-to-door canvassing is almost impossible.

This is where phone banking comes in. Political phone banking is a process in a political campaign to reach out to voters via phone calls to canvass or get out the vote. It is often carried out using a call center software, commercial phone banks, or voluntary phone banks (run by volunteers).

Through phone banking, you can reach thousands of voters in a quick and efficient manner. How long does calling a single voter take? Just minutes, sometimes even less!

Just imagine- if you have four or five volunteers calling voters, you can reach a large number of voters in a very short amount of time. And if canvassing is combined with phone banking then the two can be extremely effective in improving voter turnout as well as increasing supporters. Talk about killing two birds with one stone! Read more about how you can club canvassing and phone banking.

Read Also: 6 ways Political Phone Calls help Campaigns.

How does phonebanking work?

Now that we know what phone banking is, the next question is – how exactly does it work?

Well, phone banking basically involves volunteers calling lists of voters and talking to them about their campaign. These campaigns can be of different sorts; some might be for getting out the vote (GOTV),  some could be for recruiting volunteers, while others could be for raising funds, or for identifying voters.

Case Study: How Organizing for Change ran a successful GOTV campaign with phone banks

Some campaigns use traditional phone lines to call voters. Each volunteer has to manually dial a number, wait for the caller to pick up, and then talk to them. They have to record information about the call on paper and the manager is then stuck with a pile of survey information that needs to be manually entered into the CRM. Boring and tedious much? You bet! When you have thousands of voters to reach out to, the traditional phone banking method gets monotonous and is inefficient, and expensive in terms of time and money.

Advanced phone banking tools are software-based. Here, volunteers can simply log into the system through their computers and make calls through a browser if need be. The system handles assigning voters to agents, displaying accurate information about the voter, and storing all the feedback from the call.

So how does it help save time? Simply put: by calling the number for you and skipping bad numbers, answering machines, and busy numbers.

Each call made by a volunteer now takes 50% lesser time than the traditional method.

How to set up a phone bank

Phone banking is extremely easy to set up if you have a phone banking tool like CallHub. However, there are a few things you need planned for your campaign, such as:

  • List of voters to be called
  • The script that volunteers need to follow when talking to voters
  • Recruit a list of volunteers who can phone bank for you
  • Survey questions to be answered, if any.

Your volunteers need to be trained on what to talk about and what feedback to store. Read more about How to train your campaign volunteers.



Phone Bank party

Phone banking can be super boring at times with the repetitive tasks involved. But it can be a lot of fun when done in a group, for which a party or a get together of sorts can improve moods. Also, most volunteers aren’t used to calling and talking to strangers. They need to be motivated and in a group setting, volunteers working towards the same goal can encourage each other to do better. It also gives them a chance to bond and feel closer to the campaign. By throwing a party where all attendees can mix, mingle, interact and call voters, the quality of the calls is better and the number of calls made is higher too.

Different kinds of Phone banking

There are two types of phone banking that can be used, automated and manual. Let’s understand how the two of them work, shall we?

1. Automated

An automated dialer dials through a contact list and when a call is answered connects it to a live agent. This type of system is called a virtual outbound call center.

Relax, it’s not as complicated as it sounds! Just click here to understand it and see how simple it actually is.

So the next question is…how do agents connect to this software offered by CallHub? Well, there are two ways for this to happen:

  • Using a browser

The agent merely requires a computer and a headset and he/she is good to go. As simple as that! The agent would have to use the CallHub browser interface to read through the given script and answer surveys.

The advantages of using a browser are that it is affordable, only a single device is required, and well, it’s hands-free!

  • Using a phone

Here the agent uses a phone to connect to the campaign. Using another device, say a computer, the CallHub application is opened on the browser to read the script, answer surveys, etc.

There are two modes that can be used: Either the agent dials into the campaign, or the agent receives a call to be connected. How are the modes chosen? They are based on the phone plans in your country and the respective pricing.

The advantage of using a phone is that it is more convenient for older volunteers, and you do not require a high-speed internet connection to make your calls. On the flip side, it is a tad more expensive and requires more than one device.

In automated phone banking, there are three types of dialers that users can employ according to their needs:

1. Predictive Dialer

predictive dialer is extremely useful if you want to reach out to as many people as possible. This is necessary in the case of large campaigns such as voter identification, etc. The dialer calls a contact list and only connects those calls which are answered to the agents.

This helps save a massive amount of time as dial tones, unanswered calls, answering machines, etc get weeded out. So agents are focused only on talking to supporters instead of listening to an unending dial tone or a robotic answering machine.

2. Power Dialer

The power dialer dials the numbers automatically while the caller focuses on the live call at hand. It is a less rushed form of calling where the agent has time to fill up the survey, enter notes, and then begin the next call.

You can also set a dial rate which helps speed up the campaign while giving volunteers adequate time to fill up survey questions.

3. Preview Dialer

The preview dialer is a flexible type of dialer where an agent requires time to research the contact. The conversations are generally of a more in-depth manner and could be follow-ups to previous conversations.

The manager still has control over the people being called and gets a detailed recording of each call.

2. Manual

Also known as collective calling, manual callinghas the same interface as the automated dialer. So what’s the difference? Well, the calls, in this case, are not made by CallHub; the agent would have to manually dial in the number on a phone, then use CallHub to go through the script and answer survey questions.

So why use collective calling over dialing a number yourself, or with a group of volunteers?

This might work if all the agents are in the same place, but if everyone is spread geographically, coordinating with each other will be a major hassle.

What collective calling does is make the calling process seamless and dynamic: based on the number of active agents at a particular time, contacts are assigned to them.

This ensures that all contacts get called and no one is missed out. Besides, using CallHub’s software it is possible to remove agents who aren’t doing too well. 

So what should you use – an automated or manual dialer?

You can use Automated Calling if

  • You are a political campaign looking to reach voters
  • An advocacy group
  • You are not bound by any TCPA regulations

And similarly, you can use Collective Calling if

  • You are restricted by TCPA regulations but still would like to optimize your campaign
  • Most of your contacts are mobile numbers (not landline numbers); you’d prefer dialing them rather than calling using an automated dialer…again due to TCPA regulations

What’s next?

We know that with a range of software solutions available today, choosing the one which will work for you can get a little confusing. Take our quiz Which Autodialer Works Best For Your Campaign? to find out which autodialer will work best for your campaign.

Featured Image Source: Olha Ruskykh


Sheela Sequeira

Sheela is a marketer with a love for all things digital and creative. She has helped build products, market them, and sell them too. When not at the desk, Sheela keeps busy recording music with her band, staring at desserts, and chasing her cats.

I’ve published 5 articles you might like! Continue reading

Say hi! on social media.

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Why have memes?

Memes have become a popular form of communication on the internet because they are easily shareable and relatable to a wide audience. They often convey humor, emotions, or cultural references in a simple and digestible format. Memes also can spread quickly and virally, making them a powerful tool for conveying messages or ideas.

Here are some links that discuss the reasons behind the popularity of memes:

  1. “The Science of Memes” – This article from Psychology Today delves into the psychology behind why memes are so popular and how they spread:
  2. “The Evolution of Memes” – This article from Wired explores the history and evolution of memes, as well as why they have become such a prominent form of online communication:
  3. “Why Memes Are So Powerful” – This video from Vox explains the cultural significance of memes and why they have become a dominant form of communication in the digital age:

Overall, memes have become a popular form of communication because they are easily accessible, relatable, and shareable, making them an effective way to convey messages and ideas in a fun and engaging manner.

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Bitbrowze Art Works

At Bitbrowze you can easily host your paintings, mint your NFTs, and create unlimited memes.

call 917-748-6815 or message us securely via Threema.Ch or e-mail info@

Co-op Art Patron Program

Message to our VARs.

Affiliate Referral Network: Use your contacts to Build a downline of referrals and earn passive income.

I’m [ Douglas Crosdale ] of

Skip to navigation | Skip to content

xDALE ®Artworks.

I’m an [ artist ] [art patron].

If you appreciate fine art I’d like you to join me in a cooperative initiative to sponsor emerging artists.

Let me tell you how this is rewarding.


#1    Firstly, in either case, you become part owner of the original once the artwork is acquired. It’s like the fractionalized ownership of shares in a co-op building.

#2 Secondly, you become recognized as a co-patron. Your name is forever associated with the artwork.

#3   Thirdly, as a co-patron you are eligible for inclusion in our Affiliate Referral network to earn passive income. You get the right to mint 1 your unique copy of the original which is 100% yours in the form of an NFT that can appreciate on the market. You can even transfer this right for consideration.

#4   As a co-patron you’ll get lifetime access to Hypsoverse, our virtual reality platform (a value of $550/yr subscription waived for you ). There you can browse or even host your metaverse gallery.

You can view a PROTOTYPE video of the HYPSOVERSE MUSEUM of ART where you wear a headset and replace the Avatar with yourself immersing in the galleries. (The Planned Release, 12.2024).

You can test run the PROTOTYPE (Best viewed on a desktop PC. Avatar instructions: use keyboard arrows for navigation and E’ to enter through the main gallery door.)

#6   Finally, there are tax advantages to the non-profit affiliate. You are free to consult with our team of legal experts.

May I or one of our representatives schedule you for a Zoom call or even a personal visit?   Thank you.

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DALEx Decentralized exchange is an alternative environment that cuts out a middleman thus generating what is often thought of as a “trustless” environment. These types of exchanges function as peer-to-peer exchanges. Assets are never held by an escrow service, and transactions are done entirely based on smart contracts and atomic swaps.

The crucial difference between centralized and decentralized exchanges is whether or not a third party is present. Decentralized exchanges are less widespread and popular compared with centralized exchanges, at least in the U.S. (due to regulatory issues). Nonetheless, it’s possible that they will give centralized exchanges a run for their money in the future.

What Are Centralized Cryptocurrency Exchanges?
By NATHAN REIFF Updated July 30, 2023
Reviewed by ERIKA RASURE
Reviewed by Erika Rasure
Full Bio
Erika Rasure is globally-recognized as a leading consumer economics subject matter expert, researcher, and educator. She is a financial therapist and transformational coach, with a special interest in helping women learn how to invest.

Learn about our Financial Review Board
Fact checked by ARIEL COURAGE
What Are Centralized Cryptocurrency Exchanges?
Centralized cryptocurrency exchanges are online platforms used to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. They are the most common means investors use to buy and sell cryptocurrency holdings. For most digital currency investors, the centralized cryptocurrency exchange is one of the most important vehicles for transacting.

Some investors may find the concept of a “centralized” exchange somewhat misleading, as digital currencies are often billed as “decentralized.” Here’s what it means for an exchange of this type to be “centralized” and why these exchanges are so crucial for the success of the cryptocurrency industry as a whole.

Sorry, the video player failed to load.(Error Code: 101102)
Click Play to Learn About Cryptocurrency Exchanges
Understanding Centralized Crypto Exchanges
In the term “centralized cryptocurrency exchange,” the idea of centralization refers to using an intermediary or third party to help conduct transactions. Buyers and sellers alike trust this entity to handle their assets. This is common in a bank setup, where a customer trusts the bank to hold their money.

The reason for this setup is that banks offer security and monitoring that an individual cannot accomplish on their own. In the case of a centralized cryptocurrency exchange, the same principle applies. Transactors trust not only that the exchange will safely complete their transactions for them but also that it will use the network of users in the exchange to find trading partners.

In the case of cryptocurrencies, which are often stored in digital wallets, an individual can lose hundreds or thousands of dollars in digital currency holdings simply by forgetting the key to a wallet. An exchange will not allow this to happen, as it attempts to safeguard the holdings for the individual investor.

Key Elements of Centralized Crypto Exchanges
New centralized cryptocurrency exchanges are emerging all the time. However, not all of them are successful—it’s not uncommon for them to fold. The success or failure of an exchange is dependent upon a large number of factors. However, one of the key components to success is trading volume.

Generally speaking, the higher the levels of trading volume, the lower the volatility and market manipulation likely to occur on that exchange. Volatility is a crucial consideration. Because of the time it takes for transactions to be completed, the price of a given token or coin can change between the time the transaction is initiated and the time it is finished. The higher the trade volume and the faster the transaction can be processed, the less likely this fluctuation will be a problem.

Another crucial element of a successful centralized exchange is security. While no exchange is completely immune to malicious activity like hacks, some are safer than others.
The way an exchange reacts to an event such as a hack is by no means a given. Some exchanges have worked hard to refund customer losses, while others have been less successful in that regard. Still others have shuttered as a result of these types of attacks.

For investors looking to enter the cryptocurrency space, a centralized exchange is still the most common means of doing so. When selecting an exchange, it’s important to keep in mind the host of factors that will impact user experience, including which pairs are traded, how high the trading volume is, and the security measures exchanges have adopted to protect their customers.

Centralized vs. Decentralized Exchanges
Centralized exchanges can be used to conduct trades from fiat to cryptocurrency (or vice versa). They can also be used to conduct trades between two different cryptocurrencies. While this may seem to cover all of the potential transaction types, there is still a market for another type of cryptocurrency exchange as well.

Decentralized exchanges are an alternative; they cut out the intermediary, generating what is often thought of as a “trustless” environment. These types of exchanges function as peer-to-peer exchanges. Assets are never held by an escrow service, and transactions are done entirely based on smart contracts and atomic swaps.

The crucial difference between centralized and decentralized exchanges is whether or not a third party is present. Decentralized exchanges are less widespread and popular compared with centralized exchanges, at least in the U.S. (due to regulatory issues). Nonetheless, it’s possible that they will give centralized exchanges a run for their money in the future.

Fiat/Cryptocurrency Pairs
It’s common for a centralized exchange to offer cryptocurrency/cryptocurrency pairing. This allows customers to trade, for instance, bitcoin for ether tokens. Fewer exchanges offer fiat currency/cryptocurrency pairs, which would allow crypto trades for regular currency exchanges.

Some of the largest centralized cryptocurrency exchanges in the world offer these fiat/cryptocurrency pairs; however, most are not regulated. Part of the reason for this is likely that they serve as a direct access point to the global cryptocurrency market and don’t have an established presence in the U.S.

Since many investors in the space are relatively new to investing in digital currencies, they may be more likely to turn to these types of exchanges. Some of these exchanges include Coinbase, Robinhood, Kraken, and Gemini.

Is Coinbase a Centralized Crypto Exchange?
Yes. Coinbase is a centralized cryptocurrency exchange that operates in the U.S. and globally.

A Centralized Cryptocurrency Exchanges Safe?
Cryptocurrency exchanges are often targeted by sophisticated hackers. Some exchanges have taken measures to prevent or deter theft attempts, while others may not have been as diligent.

What Is the Most Secure Centralized Crypto Exchange?
It depends on what you believe secure means. Some exchanges provide insurance against theft and network security techniques, while others add deep cold storage methods that take your keys offline until you need them. Still others use a combination of technologies to try and secure your crypto. This means that you should do your homework and learn all your options before choosing an exchange.

The Bottom Line
Centralized cryptocurrency exchanges are online trading platforms that facilitate cryptocurrency exchanges between customers who prefer a familiar trading environment. These platforms are often used to store cryptocurrency and expose traders and investors to assets that are otherwise difficult for many people to access.
The comments, opinions, and analyses expressed on Investopedia are for informational purposes online. Read our warranty and liability disclaimer for more info. As of the date this article was written, the author owns bitcoin and XRP.

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Dark Wallet

The following is a reprint from a copyrighted text;

Dark Wallet, the anonymous Bitcoin s​torage and transfer platform, was intended to guide Bitcoi​n back to its anti-establishment, decentralized roots. But the platform was released before it was fully developed, making it hard to build an active user base and live up to the radical vision its developers held.

Now, with some brand new features—including an option for customers to anonymously convert and withdraw bitcoin into cold, hard cash—its creators are aiming to attract more people and push Dark Wallet to the comprehensive, anonymous, cypherpunk daydream they hoped it would be.

When Dark Wallet debute​d its alpha version last year, it was still a work-in-progress, according to one of the developers who built the platform. Available as a browser plugin for Google Chrome (and soon, Mozilla Firefox), the team hoped that developers and hackers around the world would tinker with it and offer ideas for ways to improve.

“To be honest, last summer when we released it, it was just to get the basic platform online,” Amir Taaki, the British-Iranian software developer who helped create Dark Wallet, told me. “But that was just more of a taster and now we’re actually getting close to releasing the full platform. This is the point where we want people to download and to test it.”


In the latest version, Dark Wallet now hosts an independent Bitcoin exchange. Users can buy and sell bitcoin within the system, with the Dark Wallet team serving as arbiters. And since Dark Wallet can be used without providing any personal information, the developers claim users will be able to buy, sell, save, and send their money anonymously.

The developers have also paired up with Chip Chap, a currency conversion app, to make converting Bitcoin and withdrawing money seamless and anonymous too. Chip Chap can convert euros to Bitcoin and vice versa, and users can withdraw their converted bitcoin as cash at thousands of ATMs located around Europe without a bank card, just a phone.

“You enter your phone number and the quantity you want to withdraw, then you are given an address and you send the Bitcoin there. After you send it, you will receive a code. You can use this at the ATM to receive cash through a system called Halc​ash which is widely deployed in Spain and throughout Europe,” Taaki explained.

Users can go to any participating ATM, enter the code they’ve been given (no cards required), and have cash in their hands instantly. It’s one of the only systems in place for turning bitcoins into cash without revealing your identity.

But Dark Wallet is still use-at-your-own-risk, even in its updated alpha version. And after more than a year of build up without a final product to show for it, it’s hard not to get a whiff of vaporware around the whole thing. The US government and the European Central Bank are taking Dark ​Wallet seriously as a potential venue for money laundering, especially after ISIS recommended the service. Taaki assured me they are very close to the final iteration of the software. They will release a beta version in a few weeks once they get more users and plan to have a complete, final version within a month or two.

But he also said Dark Wallet is just one project of many his team—which includes Cody Wilson, best known for creating pl​ans for 3D-printed guns—is working on as part of their crusade to change the way people​ think about government and society as they live and work at a small villa in Spain.

Other projects include plans for a site called Dark L​eaks, which would use a mathematical algorithm to break up, encrypt, and distribute classified documents and provide a way for people to pay money to get access to the information. Wilson is also launching ​a campaign to get elected to and then disband the Bitcoin Foundation, which his team feels is unnecessary and counterproductive to Bitcoin’s original goals of decentralization.

Even if Dark Wallet never becomes the go-to for Bitcoin users, Taaki said the attention and funds it has garnered created enough momentum for the team to keep going.

“To be honest, I’m not too worried. A lot of opportunity came with [Dark Wallet] as well,” he said. “Even if it’s not with Dark Wallet itself.”

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What Happens to the Art When a NFT is Minted?

“…when someone buys an NFT, they’re not buying the actual digital artwork; they’re buying a link to it.”

24.09.2021 — NFTartethereumon-chainoff-chainstorage — 6 min read

First is the physical artwork. This can be digitized and hosted somewhere online. That digital version is minted as an NFT. The NFT is really a certificate of authenticity and provenance and a deed to the digital work as well as the physical original.

Without looking into it, I thought that entire files -anything from 4×4 pixel blocks, 16G videos, 9mb gifs- would be encrypted and stored in a standardized format on the blockchain, with parts of files seeded between Ethereum maintainers much like bittorrent files; In the same way Instagram allows people to upload masses of images, and how Netfix never goes down and seems to host hours of video… “What a large set of virtualized storage containers they’d need to keep this ever-updating, ever-increasing series of artwork, tokens and transactions in the blockchain”, I thought. And, what a large electrical bill it would cause open-source users to maintain such an infrastructure!

I was partially correct in assuming the storage of NFTs was on a network such as BitTorrent. That’s one of the ways digital artifacts can be stored. But, I was totally wrong about how NFTs reference an artwork that it claims to represent.

On existing NFT marketplace platforms, such as, there are what’s known as “on-chain” and “off-chain” ways that NFTs reference their relationship to a work of art. These different mechanisms dictate the persistence, permanence, and longevity of an artwork associated with an NFT version of it.

How can an artist guarantee that an artwork will be accessible 5, 10, or 100 years into the future? What are the risks of holding an artwork for a lifetime? Can one reassure art collectors that they’ll be able to pass NFTs on to their loved ones who will inherit the artwork rather than some worthless token pointing to a broken URL?

Rohan Pinto

jboogle, “The broken promises of NFT Art”, 2020.Diagram distinguishing on-chain and off-chain NFT art and its differences Ibid.

On-chain NFTs

In the on-chain method, information about an artwork (metadata) is embedded in the smart contract. The actual artwork is stored on IPFS (InterPlanetary File System), which works like a peer-to-peer network.2 Platforms like Rarible use conversion services like Pinata or NFT.Storage to create an IPFS object.4 This object contains the information that points to the link of an image, video, or the digital thing of which you wanted to create a NFT. The original file doesn’t exist on the blockchain! 2 3

“…when someone buys an NFT, they’re not buying the actual digital artwork; they’re buying a link to it.”

Anil Dash, “NFTs were not supposed to end like this”, The Atlantic. April 2 2021. 2

IPFS is fine to use if you decide to run your personal IPFS node to maintain your artwork. . Naturall, you’ll foot the cost of the hardware (much like running your own server) and need a constant connection to the internet to maintain availability of your digital file. Alternatively, you must keep pinning the content or pay for the service that keeps pinning it––Services like FileCoin and infinFT bring both decentralized protocols and storage of digital artifacts for persistence and longevity. By this I mean, making the content available to other nodes for them to copy and distribute it in event that your original personal node goes down or that the software on the node tries to clean up any unused data in order to make space for other users 49. Just because you make the artwork readily available doesn’t mean its data is stored and persisted longterm.

Therefore, you have three things to pay for in the process of rolling out your own on-chain NFT:

  1. the creation of IPFS object with metadata about the artwork – This approach offers the metadata of the NFT token that will POINT to your artwork 4
  2. the IPFS pinning services (FileCoin and infinFT )– This ensures that the presence of the object pointing to the artwork is available on a regular basis
  3. the decentralized storage solution – where your artwork actually resides (hopefully forever).
  4. IPFS is my preferred choice for peer-to-peer, decentralized storage due to 5:
  • the ability to identify a file by its contents, (content-addressing)
  • the capacity to verify that the artwork data that someone requested is the exact data sought by the user
  • the immutability of the artwork’s content

What about the Off-Chain Method?

In the off-chain method, the artwork is likely stored on a centralized server like AWS. In fact, with this method, all the popular options that come to mind might be more stable and performant. (Good luck! JK)


Does it matter? Yes it does, says collector diehards.6 7 If the artist is able to swap out the file, it undermines the certainty of what the buyer had paid for! In a bid to show how competitors in the NFT-creation market are selling brittle services, Showcase called out OpenSea, Matic and Editorial for using centralized storage instead of their own means of storage.


Anyhow, some of the advantages of “off-chain” measures include using software oracles to allow for the introduction of outside factors (such as news headlines, weather information, performance of the stock market) to the if/else mechanisms of smart contracts. The way smart contracts are talked about at the time of introduction implies that transactions only occur in the vacuum of a decentralized application’s logic. The off-chain method offers an advantage of preventing external factors like stock market crashes and natural disasters (barring the coincidental destruction of storage, internet service, the dapp servers, the murder of the development leadership…) from compromising the security and operation of the blockchain. However, it also makes projects harder to connect with those outside factors. An Oracle software tool is a device that can be associated with determinant events such as the example of a soccer player who scores a hattric. A dynamic NFT would connect to an on-chain process and accommodate this event. Example of a dynamic NFT and how it connects to an on-chain process. NFT is upgraded when a soccer player scores a hattrick

Chainlink’s example of how to integrate oracles creating dynamic blockchain NFTs using Chainlink oracles.

For another example, if you wanted a NFT to become resaleable only if a certain stock performs well, you could use an oracle to connect the blockchain with stockmarket information every few days. This invariably introduces security issues but allows developers to create smart contracts that connect to real world events.

Addressing the generative art perspective, an artistically sympathetic developer, Ricardo Stuven argued that, “When it comes to on-chain artwork NFTs, the token doesn’t just refer to a piece. The token itself is the piece.”8 It does not matter that the work is pointed at or is stored elsewhere, moreso that the generative and procedural potential of an artist can be formally leveraged by the functions within the smart contract to create entirely mutative, unique digital works that are according to him, making him more worthy of being collected. Other engineers beg to differ, identifying logic gaps in the way the Hashmasks project actually performed, not due to their full diligence in binding individual tokens to crytographic hashes but in generating a single combined record of provenance. Adam Eisenmann then called on the community to arrive at consensus over the best way to connect an artwork with its NFT.9

This all sounds like nerd in-fighting but the claims of Dash, Khanan, Showcase and other technologists’ are technically true in regards to off-chain mints.


The artwork is not stored on the blockchain, and blockchain is not an optimal choice of tech for storage. 6

The current art market is hedging on NFTs to revolutionize the sales of art. And right now, it’s working because a sizeable population have agreed to participate given the way this system works. It’s extremely unregulated yet. I don’t intend to discourage anyone from using these platforms; just sharing what I’ve discovered so that you can make an informed decision 🙂


1 Rohan Pinto. “On-chain versus Off-chain: The Perpetual Blockhain Governance Debate”, Sept 6, 2019.

2 In his now archived Atlantic article, Dash took issue with the way NFTs today establish its relationship with digital artwork. He was an early proponent of such a transparent system for establishing provenance of digital art. In 2014, he and artist Kevin McCoy created a proof-of-concept that was similar to the on-chain method today, but cautioned that technology had not advanced enough yet to store works larger than 4mb on the blockchain. They called it a Monegraph. See: “Seven on Seven 2014: Kevin McCoy & Anil Dash”.

3 “Recently, an NFT-skeptical programmer named Jonty Wareing wrote an in-depth thread on Twitter delving into where the media referenced by NFTs actually lives. He discovered that typically, the token will point off-chain to either an HTTP URL metadata file or an IPFS hash.”

Dan Kahan. “Do You Really* Own Your NFT? Chances Are, You Don’t” The Defiant, Mar 31, 2021

4 IPFS. “What is IPFS?” Jun 22, 2021. IPFS. “Persistence, Permanence, and Pinning”, Jul. 28, 2021.

5 IPFS. “How IPFS Deals With Files – IPFS Camp Workshop”, Sep 17, 2019

6 “On-chain metadata makes an NFT more valuable, in part because the metadata is incorporated into the token, allowing the NFT to last forever (or as long as Ethereum exists), and in part because on-chain tokens have to meet certain Ethereum standards, giving them a liquidity premium and making trading easier. When determining whether the NFT is on-chain or off-chain, the key question is where the NFT is hosted.”

Haug and Partners. “Valuation of NFTs: Factors to Consider and an Alternative to Destroying the Original Work” July 28, 2021.

7 An assortment of technical discussions on StackExchange about off-chain NFTs: StackExchange. “On-chain vs. Off-chain NFT Art Platforms” Ethereum.

StackExchange. “If crypto art is stored off-chain, how does the collector have any control over their NFT’s contents if the server where it is saved shuts down?” Ethereum.

StackExchange. “Can we mint 5 gigabyte video NFTs?” Ethereum.

8 Ricardo Stuven. “On-Chain Artwork NFTs” Treum, Medium. Jan 29 2021

9 Adam Eisenman. “Ethereum NFT token-to-asset mappings are off-chain and nobody cares” CoinMonks. Medium. Feb 21, 2021

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John Goff bets on Blockchain

Christopher Helman Forbes Staff

Forbes Digital Covers Contributor Group

John Goff, one of America’s savviest commercial real estate investors, has a vision of using blockchain tech to store real estate titles.

John Goff, one of America’s savviest commercial real estate investors, says he “wasn’t smart enough” to have seen the Great Recession coming in 2007. But the billionaire had an inkling. At the time he was chairman of the board of Fort Worth-based Crescent Real Estate, one of the nation’s biggest REITs, with a portfolio of 54 office buildings. “Every asset we had was getting an offer,” Goff recalls. But when he surveyed the landscape, “I didn’t understand the pricing, found nothing to buy,” he says. So in August 2007 he did the only thing that made sense: He sold.

Morgan Stanley paid $6.5 billion for Crescent at the peak of the real estate market. For Goff, who made about $220 million on his shares, the timing couldn’t have been better. He stood unscathed, watching agape as the portfolio his team had built crumbled in value. By the end of 2009 Morgan Stanley had written off its equity in the investment and handed Crescent over to Barclays, which had loaned $3.5 billion on the deal. Figuring no one knew the properties better than Goff, Barclays teamed with him to manage the portfolio and try to get its money back. Which over the next few years he did, and then some, by gradually liquidating more than $2 billion of office towers into a strengthening market. Favorite assets, like the high-end Canyon Ranch health resort, Goff bought himself. Last year, when they officially ended their joint venture, Barclays even handed the Crescent name back to Goff.

Billionaire John Goff at his McKinney and Olive tower in Dallas.TIM PANNELL

So now, a decade after he dodged a bullet by selling his company, Goff is back in control of it again, with a concentrated portfolio of premium properties that he says he likes well enough to hold onto through any economic downturn. Not that he thinks that’s coming—at least not yet. “I’m bullish on the economy,” he says. “The tax cuts are big, and we’re so behind on GDP growth coming out of the Obama years.” Rising interest rates are largely baked in to real estate prices, he says. Low unemployment is great for occupancy rates. As is America’s predictable population growth of 2 million people per year. An even more important trend: wealth creation. According to Paris-based consultancy Capgemini, the number of high-net-worth Americans ($1 million of investable assets) has been growing at a 7.8% clip since 2010. With the rich getting richer, Goff is sure of growing demand for top-drawer properties.

Take Goff’s new office building McKinney & Olive, a 530,000-square-foot, 20-story glass trapezoid designed by starchitect Cesar Pelli in the Uptown neighborhood of Dallas. “I think it’s a sexy building,” Goff says. He’s particularly fond of how the top of it juts out over its namesake intersection, meaning the top floors have more premium square footage than those below. Great for the building’s economics, says a grinning Goff, who remains boyish at 63. Commercial tenants willing to pay the highest rents anywhere in the city (about $60 per square foot) can rub shoulders in the onsite yoga studio with hotshots from McKinsey & Co. and ad giant Saatchi & Saatchi. There’s also a chic Starbucks Reserve Bar and an acre of public green space. To pick out the marble for the soaring lobby, Goff took his wife, Cami, to the best quarries in Carrera, Italy. Building McKinney & Olive cost about $225 million, most of it from J.P. Morgan Asset Management.

Goff started out in the industry on the ground floor. As a kid in Lake Jackson, Texas, “I was a regular down at the dump,” he says. “I loved taking stuff apart, breaking it into components,” which ended up strewn around the house. He built a submarine out of a hot water heater. “It drove my mother crazy.” By age 13 John started working as a handyman at a family friend’s apartment complex. It wasn’t long before he was managing the place, down to collecting rent. That was enough for him to catch the real estate bug. After studying accounting at the University of Texas, Goff became a CPA, working at KPMG for real estate clients, first in Houston, then in Fort Worth.

In 1987 Goff got his big break when billionaire investor Richard Rainwater hired him to bring some order to his disparate holdings. In the 1970s Rainwater had made a name— and a lot of money—for himself helping Fort Worth’s Sid Bass and his three brothers turn a small fortune left by their oil tycoon uncle Sid Richardson into a big one, primarily by building up controlling stakes in undervalued oddballs like National Alfalfa. At one point they owned 10% of Texaco, 5% of Marathon Oil and a $3 billion controlling stake in Walt Disney.


By the late 1980s Rainwater had gone out on his own, with an office in Fort Worth that became known as a deal shop, where the phones were always ringing. Rainwater’s operation was staffed by a cadre of young go-getters who later developed into tycoons in their own right, including Sears boss Eddie Lampert, TPG private equity honcho David Bonderman and energy infrastructure guru Ken Hersh. George W. Bush was Rainwater’s partner in the Texas Rangers baseball team. “Dad didn’t invest with anyone he didn’t think was the Michael Jordan of their arena,” says his son Todd Rainwater (Richard died in 2015).

Rainwater, Inc., was a ticket to nirvana. Goff emptied out his 401(k) of $14,100 after penalties in order to put his money to work with Rainwater. (“Scared the heck out of me,” he says.) In an early deal Goff brought Dallas Cowboys Hall of Fame quarterback Roger Staubach over to see Rainwater. Staubach had started a commercial real estate brokerage and needed some liquidity. They gave him $1 million cash for 20% of the equity. (Which turned into more than $70 million when Staubach sold to Jones Lang Lasalle for $650 million in 2008.)

In 1994 Rainwater and Goff made their first big real estate deal, for the Crescent, a 1.3 million-square-foot neoclassical complex by architect Philip Johnson that oil heiress Caroline Rose Hunt had spent $500 million building in an unloved corner of Dallas. Finished in 1986, the Crescent was in danger of defaulting on $250 million in debt. Backed with a $100 million letter of credit from Rainwater, Goff crisscrossed the country and negotiated with banks to buy up all the building’s distressed paper for just $172 million.

A decade after he dodged a bullet by selling his company, Goff is back in control of it again, with a portfolio of properties he says he’ll hold onto through any economic downturn.

It was a sweet debut deal, and the duo ended up naming their real estate company after it, taking it public in a $650 million IPO in 1994. They raised even more in follow-on offerings and deployed the capital to ultimately acquire 40 million square feet of properties, including One Buckhead Plaza in Atlanta, the Alhambra in Coral Gables, Florida, and the Exchange Building in downtown Seattle. Resort investments included the Ventana Inn & Spa and the Sonoma Mission Inn. In Dallas, next to the Crescent, they built a Ritz-Carlton, designed by starchitect Robert A.M. Stern. And they paid out big dividends, including an estimated $100 million to Goff.

There were some missteps along the way like buying the real estate under a chain of old folks’ homes that 60 Minutes later exposed for patient neglect. But for the most part Goff has succeeded by hewing to a strategy that he first avowed to Forbes in 2002: “I want to be where capital isn’t flowing.” It was this eclectic portfolio that Morgan Stanley bought for $6.5 billion at the peak of the market. When Lehman Bros. collapsed a year later, Goff found himself on the sidelines with $200 million of Morgan Stanley’s money.

Goff outside the McKinney and Olive tower in Dallas.TIM PANNELL

Grateful for dry powder, Goff again waded into the distressed debt markets and was buying when Morgan finally defaulted and handed Crescent over to Barclays. “I tried to buy 100%, but we couldn’t agree to terms,” he says. So instead he forged a joint venture with Barclays to manage the assets and get its $2.7 billion back. In 2011 they sold a collection of Texas office buildings (including the original Crescent complex in Dallas) to J.P. Morgan Asset Management for $1.9 billion and in 2013 sold another complex to Cousins Properties for $1.1 billion. Goff bought the Dallas Ritz-Carlton and Canyon Ranch for his own account. By last year Barclays had been returned its billions in loans, plus interest, plus dividends, plus some equity in a handful of buildings they now co-own with Goff.

The cherry on top: Goff got his company back and started the process of building all over again. He launched a new fund called the GP Invitation Fund to bring in money from friends to invest in new deals. It has so far acquired six hotels, including the Hotel Crescent Court and Spa in Dallas for $75 million, the Brown Palace Hotel in Denver for $125 million and a Westin in Atlanta for $85 million. They’re also building a 700-room hotel complex in Nashville. Crescent now has $2.8 billion under management. Roger Staubach says he’s an investor in the fund. So is Dary Stone, former CEO of Cousins Properties, who lauds Goff for his discipline in staying picky while being pitched on every real estate deal in America: “His biggest challenge is in saying no.”

Outside of the Crescent umbrella, Goff holds what he considers to be his single most important investment. Canyon Ranch, which bills itself as a wellness resort, has two locations, one in Lenox, Massachusetts, a touristy bit of New England, and the original in quintessential dude ranch country outside Tuscon, Arizona. The place dates to 1979, founded by Mel Zuckerman, an asthmatic, overweight CPA from New Jersey who visited an Arizona “fat farm” with his wife, Enid. In a spiritual awakening the couple became health nuts, and they decided to stay in Arizona to build their own operation. Canyon Ranch was a progenitor among “wellness” resorts, offering programs for everything from aquatics, Pilates and horses to a $2,950 course of polysomnography—all night sleep monitoring.

For the most part Goff has succeeded by hewing to a strategy that he first avowed to Forbes in 2002: “I want to be where capital isn’t flowing.”

Richard Rainwater fell in love with the place on his first visit in the 1990s. He and Goff immediately befriended Zuckerman, and Crescent began financing Canyon Ranch’s improvement and expansion. By 2007, when they sold to Morgan Stanley, Crescent had 49% of the resort company. Goff bought that whole stake for his own account at the same time he and Barclays took the portfolio back from Morgan Stanley in 2009. In 2014 Goff acquired another 20% stake after buying up a convertible bond issue. Last year Goff completed a deal with Zuckerman to buy his remaining shares.

“John is the right person, because over the years he used Canyon Ranch not just to take a vacation but to help find change and meaning,” Zuckerman says. “He understands it for its purpose. He gets us.”

The new owner does have some changes in mind. Last year Goff moved Canyon Ranch headquarters to his own offices in Fort Worth. And he gave the nod for its spas to start offering botox treatments for the first time (Zuckerman wasn’t a fan). Goff plans to leverage the Canyon Ranch brand in a franchise-model expansion. Already there are Canyon Ranch-branded spas on board 22 cruise ships, including Cunard’s Queen Mary 2, and in Vegas a 160,000-square-foot mega-spa at Sheldon Adelson’s Venetian hotel. Goff envisions dozens more locations: “Someday Canyon Ranch will be bigger than Crescent ever was.”

The trophy room at the Greystone Castle Sporting Club, a hunting lodge in Mingus, Texas, co-owned by John Goff.TIM PANNELL

Goff is also busy training the next generation. In a light-filled space looking out on Fort Worth’s carefully gentrified Sundance Square district, Goff’s office is right next to that of his 34-year-old son Travis. An avid video gamer, Travis forged a deal last year to join Cowboys owner Jerry Jones to acquire a controlling stake in esports team Complexity Gaming, which is now headquartered alongside the Cowboys. “Their autograph lines are longer than for pro athletes,” the elder Goff marvels.

He keeps up with the digital stuff. Down the hall two twentysomething traders mine the digital currency Ethereum from their workstations. Last fall they persuaded Goff to seed them $5 million to launch a crypto-blockchain investment fund. Even after recent months of white-knuckle volatility, Goff says he’s up on his bet, and he has a vision of using blockchain tech to store real estate titles. It’s a lark, he says with a grin. “I’m willing to lose it all tomorrow.”